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Motoring Names


Body Styles


1974 Alfa Romeo 2000 Berlina

Berlina: an Italian term refering to a motor car with enclosed seating space for the driver and at least three passengers. In America, a sedan refers to a covered car for four or more people. The British equivalent is a saloon.

1963 Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso 2+2 Coupe

Berlinetta: an Italian word refering to a sports coupé, typically with two seats but also including 2+2 (four seats) cars. The original meaning for berlinetta in Italian is 'little saloon'. Introduced in the 1930s, the term was popularized by Ferrari in the 1950s.

19th century Brougham Carriage

Brougham: a brougham (pronounced "broom" or "brohm") was a light, four-wheeled horse-drawn carriage built in the 19th century. It was named after the politician and jurist Lord Brougham, who had this type of carriage built to his specification by London coachbuilder Robinson & Cook in 1838 or 1839. It had an enclosed body with two doors, like the rear section of a coach; it sat two, sometimes with an extra pair of fold-away seats in the front corners, and with a box seat in front for the driver and a footman or passenger. Unlike a coach, the carriage had a glazed front window, so that the occupants could see forward. The forewheels were capable of turning sharply. A variant, called a brougham-landaulet, had a top collapsible from the rear doors backward.

1957 BMW Isetta Model 300

Bubble Car: The Isetta, designed and first manufactured in 1953 by Italian motor scooter and motorcyle builder Iso, was the company's first four wheel car. Because of its egg shape and bubble-like windows, it became known as a bubble car, a name later given to other similar microcars.

2002 Peugeot 306 Cabriolet

Cabriolet: a cabriolet is a passenger car that can be driven with or without a roof in place. The methods of retracting and storing the roof vary between models. A convertible allows an open-air driving experience, with the ability to provide a roof when required. The term cabriolet originated from "a light, two-wheeled, one-horse carriage with a folding top, capable of seating two persons", however the term is also used to describe other convertibles these days. Other terms for convertibles include cabriolet, cabrio, drop top, open two-seater, open top, rag top, soft top, spider, spyder, runabout and roadster. Spider or spyder was usually a European term, for what was known as a roadster in America.

1962 BMW 3200 CS Coupé

Coupé: a coupé (pronounced 'coop-ey'; 'coop' in Amercia) is a passenger car with a sloping rear roofline and generally two doors. Coupé was first applied to horse-drawn carriages for two passengers without rear-facing seats. The term coupé comes from the French translation of "cut".

1954 Jaguar XK120 Drophead Coupé

Drophead Coupé: a British term for a four-seated sports car with two doors, a folding roof and a sloping rear; a soft top. Conversely, a coupé without a fixed roof and a sloping rear was refered to as a fixed head coupé.



1970 Volkswagen Type 3 Fastback

Fastback: an automotive styling feature which is defined by the rear of the car having a single slope from the roof to the rear bumper. Some models (such as the Ford Mustang) have been specifically marketed as a fastback, often to differentiate the model from other body styles (e.g. coupe models) in the same model range. Road & Track magaine have defined the fastback as "A closed body style, usually a coupe but sometimes a sedan, with a roof sloped gradually in an unbroken line from the windshield to the rear edge of the car. A fastback naturally lends itself to a hatchback configuration and many have it, but not all hatchbacks are fastbacks and vice versa."

1938 Oldsmobile Sloper

In Australia, fastback cars were first known as the "sloper" and began to be introduced in 1935. It was first designed by General Motors' Holden as one of the available bodies on Oldsmobile, Chevrolet, and Pontiac chassis. The sloper design was added by Richards Body Builders in Australia to Dodge and Plymouth models in 1937, by Ford Australia in 1939 and 1940, as well as a sloper style made on Nash chassis. According to automotive historian G.N. Georgano, "the Slopers were advanced cars for their day.
  • Oldsmobile in Australia


  • Landau carriage

    Landau: a landau is a coachbuilding term for a type of four-wheeled, convertible carriage. It was a city carriage of luxury type. The low shell of the landau provides maximal visibility of the occupants and their clothing, a feature that makes a landau still a popular choice for the Lord Mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom on ceremonial occasions. A landau is lightweight and suspended on elliptical springs. It was invented in the 18th century; landau in this sense is first noted in English in 1743. It was named after the German city of Landau in the Rhenish Palatinate where they were first produced. Lord, Hopkinson, coachmakers of Holborn, London, produced the first English landaus in the 1830s.

    1977 Mercedes Benz 600 Pullman State Landaulet

    Landaulet: a landaulet, also known as landaulette, is a car body style where the rear passengers are covered by a convertible top. Often the driver is separated from the rear passengers by a division, as with a limousine.

    1966 MGB roadster

    Roadster: a roadster (also spider, spyder) is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. The term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include bicycles and tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three. It may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was usually further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters usually had a hooded dashboard.

    In time, the word came to refer to a two-seat car with no weather protection; its usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles. In the United Kingdom, historically the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has also been increasingly used in the United Kingdom.

    1966 Porsche 911 Targa

    Targa: car roof characterized by a removable centre section. The term first came into being with the 1966 Porsche 911 Targa, which was advertised as a "convertible with a roll bar." It is named after the Targa Florio, a famous road race in Sicily from 1906-1977.



1967 Volkswagen 1500 Type 3 Notchback

Notchback: a category of car characterized as having a three-box design where the trunk volume is less pronounced than the front engine and passenger compartments. Also known as a hatch or hatchback, the term came into popular useage in the 1970s by car manufacturers to deferentiate between smaller booted versions of a partcular model vehicle. The terms squareback did not have the same meaning; it refered to a station wagon version of a model range which included a hatchback and/or a sedan.

1969 Mazda 1500 sedan

Sedan: a sedan, or saloon, is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine, passenger, and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912. The name comes from a 17th-century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette.

Jaguar XJS Shooting Brake

Shooting Break: a car body style which originated in the 1890s as a horse-drawn wagon used to transport shooting parties with their equipment and game. The first automotive shooting brakes were manufactured in the early 1900s in the United Kingdom. The vehicle style became popular in England during the 1920s and 1930s, and was produced by vehicle manufacturers or as conversions by coachbuilders. The term was used in Britain interchangeably with estate car from the 1930s, but has not been in general use for many years and has been more or less superseded by the latter term. In most countries the estate car is refered to as a station wagon or station sedan.

1962 Ford Falcon XL Station Wagon

Station Wagon: also called an estate car, estate or sedan, is a car body style which has a two-box design, a large cargo area and a rear tailgate that is hinged to open for access to the cargo area. The body style is similar to a hatchback car, but station wagons are often longer and are more likely to have the roof-line extended to the rear of the vehicle body. (resulting in a vertical rear surface to the car) to provide ample space for luggage and small cargo. In recent years the use of the name 'station wagon' has been replaced by 'wagon'.

The first station wagons, produced in the United States around 1910, were wood-bodied conversions of an existing passenger car. During the 1930s, car manufacturers in the United States, United Kingdom, and France began to produce similarly-styled models, and by the 1950s the wood rear bodywork had been replaced by an all-steel body. Station wagon and estate models sold well from the 1950s to the 1970s, after which sales declined somewhat as minivans and SUVs have increased in popularity.

2019 Maserati Levante SUV

SUV (Sports Utility Vehicle): a powerful vehicle with higher ground clearance that a standard sedan, allowing it to be driven over rough ground. SUV's are produced in four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive and two-wheel-drive formats. Larger SUVs can have a third row of seats. Vehicles with an 8-seat carrying capacity formerly known as People Movers are now categorised as Sports Utility Vehicles.

Initials:

GT: Grand Tourismo or Grand Tourer.

GTE: Grand Tourer Executive.

GTS: Grand Tourer Sports.

GS: stands for "Grand Sedan."

SE: Special Edition, Sports Edition or Special Equipment, depending on the brand. The acronyms LE, CE, XLE, S, and XL have similar meanings.

XL: Extra luxury.

Makes And Models

The makes and models listed here are primarily those that are either presently sold in Australia or are no longer manufactured but were once sold in Australia. Makes and models not sold in Australia may not be included.



Alfa Romeo
The company was founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as Societa Anonima Italiana Darracq (SAID), to produce and sell special Darracq models for Italy. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP the first car to be so badged.

When Alfa (A.L.F.A. for Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili) Romeo was founded in 1910, draughtsman Romano Cattaneo came up with the company’s logo based on a crest he saw in Milan above the door of Castello Sforzesco. Being that the company was founded in Milan, a symbol representative of the city seemed appropriate. Designer Giuseppe Merosi helped turn the idea into Alfa Romeo's official emblem. Apart from some minor tweaks with the wording, gold trim, and wreath appearance over the years, the design has remained fairly consistent.

The left side of the emblem is a red cross over a white background - a medieval Christian symbol. During the Crusades, Milanese soldiers associated with Giovanni of Rho donned a red cross and white undergarments beneath their armor. Giovanni of Rho is known for leading an army to the Holy Land and for erecting a cross on the walls of Jerusalem during the first crusade. This image could be considered the Cross of St Ambrose or St. George's Cross.

The right side, a giant serpent/dragon gobbling up a red man, is the symbol of the influential Visconti family of 11th century Milan. The image is known as a Biscione and has become a symbol for Milan, being seen many places around the city. The crown is supposedly from when Viscontis became dukes in the 15th century. Where the symbol itself comes from and what it means has been a subject of ongoing debate. The most accepted interpretation today is that the man being devoured is a Saracen or Moor (a Muslim) which is being defeated during the Christian Crusades.

Giulia: the Italian variation of the French and English Julia. Julia was an ancient Roman imperial name given to females in the house of a Julius, as in Caesar. Julius derived from the Greek word ioulos, meaning "downy-bearded." Over time the accepted meaning has come to be "youthful," since men begin growing beards in their youth. The name has been used for Alfa Romeo's compact 4-cylinder 4-door saloons.

The use of the name by Alfa Romeo derives from the Church of Saint Julia, a Roman Catholic place of worship located in the city of Turin, Italy, where Alfas Romeo cars are manufactured. The church was built in 1862 under the patronage of philanthropist Juliette Colbert de Barolo and dedicated to Saint Julia of Corsica.

Giulietta: based on the name Giulia, meaning 'youthful'. English form of the French Juliette, which is a diminutive form of Julie. It is a name given to Alfa Romeo's small, 2-door family saloons - literally a smaller version of the Giulia.

Alfetta: literally a diminutive form of the name Alfa Romeo in the way that Giulietta is a diminutive form of Giulia.

Brera: Brera is a district of Milan, Italy. The name stems from Medieval Italian "braida" or "brera", derived from Old Lombardic "brayda", meaning a land expanse either cleared of trees or naturally lacking them.

Montreal: the Alfa Romeo Montreal was introduced as a concept car in 1967 at Expo 67, held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Originally concept cars were displayed without any model name, but the public took to calling it The Montreal. The name was retained when it was put into production.

33 Stradale: Italian for "road-going", it is a term often used by Italian car manufacturers to indicate a street-legal version of a racing car; indeed the 33 Stradale was derived from the Tipo 33 sports prototype.

Alfasud: literally means southern Alfa, as it was made in a purpose-built factory in Naples in Southern Italy. All other Alfa Romeos have been made in Turin in northern Italy.

MiTo: a portmanteau of Milano (Milan), where it was designed, and Torino, (Turin) where it was manufactured. The Alfa Romeo MiTo (Type 955) is a front-wheel drive, three-door small car introduced in 2008.

Stevio: Entering production in 2016, the Alfa Romeo Stelvio was named after a national park in northern Italy. One of the highest paved mountain passes in Europe, the Stelvio Pass has been declared one of the best driving roads in Europe by driving publications around the world. The tight ‘S’ curves of the Stelvio Pass pose a challenge for most vehicles.



Audi
After leaving automobile company August Horch & Cie, August Horch founded his own company–August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH–in 1909. It was later renamed "Audi." In 1932, Audi Automobilwerke merged with three other companies, each with a different focus: DKW (motorcycles and small cars), Wanderer (midsize cars), Audi (deluxe midsize cars), and Horch (high-end, luxury vehicles). Together, they formed Auto Union AG. The company became a Volkswagen subsidiary by 1966, and in 1985, Auto Union AG became a single company: Audi.

The company’s name comes from the last name of founder August Horch. In German, Horch means "listen/hear." In Latin, "listen" is "Audi." The idea was supposedly suggested by of of the company’s founder’s sons. The company’s slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik , "Advancement through Technology." Audi’s first logo, when it was founded in 1909, was an upside-down triangle with a #1 on top of it, obviously drawing attention to the company’s self-proclaimed superiority. When the merger occurred in 1932, the Auto Union emblem was made of four interlocking, overlapping rings–each containing the logo of a participating brand. Eventually, the individual company logos and the superimposed company name disappeared, leaving four sharp, silver circles.



BMW
There are conflicting stories relating to what the BMW logo represents. The most popular idea is that it is a rotating air screw, based on the cover of a BMW aircraft engine manual from 1929. However, it made its first appearance on the Bayern-Flugmotor manual in 1918, and the first time on the road in 1923 on the R32 bike.

According to Dr. Florian Triebel, Executive Board Member of BMW AG, "There are two traditions concerning the significance of the BMW logo and trademark, offering two different interpretations of its sky blue and white fields. One interpretation points to a rotating aircraft propeller (BMW manufactured aircraft before automobiles). The white and blue checker boxes are supposed to be a stylized representation of a white/silver propeller blade spinning against a clear blue sky. The other relates the BMW logo to Bavaria as the place where the products are manufactured".

For BMW, it was ‘a happy coincidence’ that the BMW logo symbolized the Bavarian flag colors and represented the company’s origin. When the BMW logo was first created, it was prohibited by the Trademark Act to feature ‘national coats of arms or other symbols of national sovereignty’ in a trademark. This led the BMW marketers to come up with a solution of ‘incorrectly configuring the color elements in the BMW logo from a heraldic perspective’, while also keeping its relationship with Bavaria evident.

The name BMW is short for Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, translated in English as Bavarian Motor Works. The name has more of a ring to it in Germany than it has in English speaking countries - the letter 'W' is pronounced 'Vee' in German, resulting in the first and third letters of the name rhyming - the name is pronounced "Bee - Em - Vee".

2 Series: A smaller two door model available as either a coupe or convertible

3 Series: A compact four door model available as a sedan, sports wagon or Gran Turismo

4 Series: A compact coupe-style model available as either a two-door coupe or convertible, or a four-door Gran Coupe

5 Series: A mid-size four door model available as a sedan or Gran Turismo

6 Series: A mid-size two door model available as a two-door coupe or convertible, or a four-door Gran Coupe or ALPINA Gran Coupe

7 Series: a full-size four door model available as a sedan or ALPINA sedan

X Models: a line of SUVs and crossovers (or what BMW refers to as Sports Activity Vehicles and Sports Activity Coupes)

CS Models: used to represent sports coupe, but now Clubsport or Competition Sport.

CSL: "Coupé Sport Leichtbau" ("Coupé Sport Lightweight").

CSi: a 3.0 Club Sport model powered by a direct-injection petrol engine of new generation instead of the carbureted unit on the CS.

Z4 Model: A two door roadster

M Models: A high-performance version of many BMW models is grouped into the M Models (e.g. the M3 is a high-performance version of the 3 Series sedan).

BMW i: BMW’s line of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles

E9 Series: E9 is a range of coupés produced from 1968 to 1975. Initially released as the 2800 CS model, the E9 was based on the BMW 2000 C / 2000 CS four-cylinder coupés, which were enlarged to fit the BMW M30 six-cylinder engine. The E9 bodywork was built by Karmann.

Gran Coupe: A Gran Coupe is a four door version of a coupe. It retains the curves and styling of a smaller two door vehicle with the added roominess of a four door. Both the 4 Series and 6 Series are available as Gran Coupes.

Gran Turismo: bA Gran Turismo is a four door sedan with a higher driving position and a wagon-like trunk. This higher roofline car is available in the 3 and 5 series.

Isetta: Initially manufactured by the Italian firm Iso Sp,A beginning in 1953, the name Isetta is the Italian diminutive form of Iso, meaning "little Iso". Iso was initially named 'Isothermos' and manufactured refrigeration units before World War II. The company was founded in Genoa in 1939, but was transferred to Bresso in 1942 by Renzo Rivolta, an engineer and Iso's owner. Rivolta wanted to concentrate on his new Iso Rivolta sports car, and so began doing licensing deals. BMW began talking with Rivolta in mid-1954 and bought not just a license but the complete Isetta body tooling as well. In 1955, the BMW Isetta became the world's first mass-production car to achieve a fuel consumption of 3 L/100 km (94 mpg). It was the top-selling single-cylinder car in the world, with 161,728 units sold.



BMC/British Leyland

British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings. In 1975, it became known as British Leyland, and later BL. After much restructuring and divestment of subsidiary companies, it was renamed as the Rover Group in 1986, later becoming a subsidiary of British Aerospace and subsequently, BMW.

As BMC, the brand range consisted initially of Austin, Morris, Wolseley, Rily and MG. Triumph, Rover Land Rover and Jaguar were progressively added. Jaguar and Mini are the only makes/models still being produced.
  • BMC-Leyland in Australia




  • Austin: The Austin Motor Company Limited was a British manufacturer of motor vehicles, founded in 1905 by Herbert Austin. In 1952 it was merged with Morris Motors Limited in the new holding company British Motor Corporation (BMC) Limited, keeping its separate identity. The marque Austin was used until 1987. The trademark is currently owned by the Chinese firm SAIC Motor, after being transferred from bankrupt subsidiary Nanjing Automotive which had acquired it with MG Rover Group in July 2005.

    Austin used both names and model numbers to identify their models. These commenced with the letter 'A' followed by a number, in multiples of fives, starting with A30 (the smallest car) and finishing with A65 (the largest car). Under BMC, model names were predominantly the names of English counties, eg. Oxford, Cambridge, Devon, Somerset. BL models were named by engine size, eg. 850, 1100, 1500, 1800.



    Morris: Morris Motors Limited was formed in 1919 to take over the assets of William Morris's WRM Motors Limited and continue production of the same vehicles. In 1952, Morris merged with the other brands to form BMC, the name remained in use until 1984, when British Leyland's Austin Rover Group decided to concentrate on the more popular Austin brand.

    Minor, Major and Oxford were the mainline models. From the early 1960s, cars branded as Morris were re-badged versions of cars common to the BMC/BL stable. The Minor name was given to the Mini upon its release, but eventually was dropped as the Mini gained its own reputation. The Oxford name was retained and used for the mid-sized Morris. The small 4-door Austin Lancer was rebadged as the Morris Major (both named after military rankings).



    Wolseley: Wolseley Motors Limited was founded in early 1901 by the Vickers armaments combine in conjunction with Herbert Austin. It initially made a full range, topped by large luxury cars, and dominated the market in the Edwardian era. In 1927 when it was bought from Vickers Limited by William Morris as a personal investment He moved it into his Morris Motors empire just before the Second World War. Under BMC, all Wolseley's were essentially re-badged versions of Austin-Morris vehicles with a few external and mechanical changes to set them apart. Models numbers were based on engine size and horse power, eg. the 16/60 model had a 1.6 lite engine that developed approx. 60 horsepower.



    Riley: In 186 William Riley Jr. purchased a cycle business and in 1896 created The Riley Cycle Company Limited. Riley's middle son, Percy, followed in his father's footsteps, building his first car at 16. In 1938, after going bankrupt, Lord Nuffield bought Riley, whereupon the Coventry works were made an extension of Morris Motors' engine branch. There was no pattern to naming the Riley version of BMC's cars - some followed the number system adopted by Woseley, other had their own names, such as the Riley Elf (a Mini with a boot added, Wolseley's Mini was called the Hornet) and the Kestral (Austin/Morris 1100).



    MG: MG cars had their roots in a 1920s sales promotion sideline of Morris Garages, a retail sales and service centre in Oxford belonging to William Morris. The business's manager, Cecil Kimber, modified standard production Morris Oxfords and the new marque as born. Originally, the marque was used predominantly for two-seater sports cars made at the M.G Car Company factory in Abingdon, some 16 km south of Oxford. MG also produced saloons and coupes, with engines up to three litres in size.The later saloons were re-badged and/or re-engineered version of the BMC/BL stable cars.

    In July 2005, the Nanjing Automobile Group purchased the rights to the MG brand along with other assets of the MG Rover Group, creating a new company which still manufactures cars using the MG name and logo..



    Cadillac
    Since the company’s establishment by Henry Martyn Leland in 1902 and acquisition by General Motors in 1909, certain design elements have remained consistent in the company’s emblem. The Cadillac name and its emblem has its origins in the family crest of Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, the founder of the city of Detroit. The man asserted that the lineage was tied to old French royalty, thus meaning the Cadillac coat of arms was designed ceturies before America was discovered, but many believe Antoine designed the crest himself when he married in 1687, taking its looks from his neighbor Baron Sylvester of Esparbes de Lussan. In reality, it’s possible Antoine invented much of his noble ancestry.

    The first automotive Cadillac emblem featured the following design elements:

    The Couronne (Crown): The six ancient counts of France, with the pearls being descendancy from the royal counts of Tolouse.
    The Merlettes: Commonly known as "the ducks," these birds appear in trios to symbolize the Holy Trinity, with three on one side representing the nobility of the mother’s lineage and the others representing the father’s noble lineage. The use of the birds comes from the time of the Crusades.
    Color Stripes: Black (superiority), gold (riches), red (boldness), silver (virtue), and blue (valor). The black stripe itself is indicative of an award for Crusader service. The Laurel Wreath: A symbol of aristocracy and victory.



    Chevrolet
    Race car driver Louis Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3, 1911 as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a controlling stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2, 1918 and propelled himself back to the GM presidency.

    Chevrolet's iconic Chevy 'bowtie' logo was first introduced by the company’s co-founder William Durant in 1913. Over the years, multiple explanations of where Durant came up with the idea for the logo have circulated. The most predominantly accepted – and the explanation confirmed by Durant and the Chevy company – origin is that it was inspired by the wallpaper design within a Paris hotel. It is said he tore off a piece of the wallpaper and kept it to show friends, with the thought that it would make a good nameplate for a car."

    However, Durant’s own family disagrees with that explanation. According to his daughter, Durant sketched the image at the dinner table in 1929, as he was known to doodle designs frequently. A third explanation which his wife offered was that Durant copied the design of an ad. for "Coalettes" in a Virginia newspaper ad while they were on vacation in 1912. This explanation does seem to withstand scrutiny, as the ad for "Coalettes" features a logo nearly identical to Chevrolet’s bowtie. That it shape reflects the red cross on the flag of Switzerland (Louis Chevrolet was a Swiss-American) may have been an incluencing factor.

    Corvette: the name Corvette rolled off the tongue well and it was thought a tie to the fast strike ships called "Corvettes" from World War II would appeal to the American men, many who had served. This would go on to form the foundation for the nautical names that would be applied to Corvettes and concepts such as the Mako Shark and Sting Ray (later to be used as Stingray).

    Corvair: designed as a rear-engined air-cooled sports sedan, it was given a name that incorporated the two main aspects of the car’s personality – "Corv" was came from the name of Chevrolet’s only sports car – the Corvette – "Air" was a reference to it having an air-cooled engine.

    Camaro: Chevrolet executives Bob. Lund and Ed Rollett found the word camaro in the French-English dictionary was slang, to mean friend, pal, or comrade. The article further repeated Estes's statement of what the word camaro was meant to imply, that the car's name "suggests the comradeship of good friends, as a personal car should be to its owner". In fact, the actual French word that has that meaning is "camarade," from which the English word "comrade" is derived, and not "camaro"; "camaro" is not a recognized word in the French language.

    Chevelle: The meaning of the name Chevelle is My God is a vow. Chevelle is a Hebrew girl’s name. Chevy chevelles were made from 1964-1973 but the most famed years were 69 and 70. They were a sub-model of the malibu but much better. According to an urban dictionary,Chevelle is a strong kick ass kinda girl who rules everyone and everything around and about her! Easy to get along with. But don't cross her or you will pay for it.

    Impala: The Impala name was first used for the full-sized 1956 General Motors Motorama show car that bore Corvette-like design cues, especially the grille. It was named Impala after the graceful African antelope, and this animal became the car's logo. The Impala was Chevrolet's popular flagship passenger car and was amongst the better selling American made automobiles in the United States.

    Bel Air: Bel Air is a high class neighborhood on the Westside of Los Angeles, California, in the foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains. Together with Beverly Hills and Holmby Hills, Bel Air forms the Platinum Triangle of Los Angeles neighborhoods. With the 1953 model year the Bel Air name was changed from a designation for a unique body shape to a premium level of trim applied across a number of body styles. The Bel Air continued with various other trim level designations until US. Production ceased in 1975. Production continued in Canada, for its home market only, through the 1981 model year.

    Biscayne: named after Biscayne Bay, near Miami, Florida, following a trend by Chevrolet at the time to name cars after coastal cities or beaches such as the Bel Air, Leguna, Brookwood, Delray and the Chevrolet Malibu.



    Chrysler
    Back when Chrysler began in the 1920s, Walter P. Chrysler’s team of 18 men included Oliver Clark. Clark was the genius who designed not only the brand’s iconic silver-winged radiator cap (based on the Greek god Mercury) but the original Chrysler logo too. From the mid 1920s to the mid 1950s, Chrysler models proudly paraded the brand’s first emblem: a "seal of approval." The logo consisted of a wax seal with a ribbon showing from the lower right. The lightning bolts are actually Z’s, honoring the early Zeder prototype named for chief engineer Fred Zeder.

    Clark said the seal was patterned from state fair ribbons, synonymous with quality. The wax seal was retired in 1954. From 1955 to the 1980s, Chrysler didn’t have a consistent badge on its vehicles. One common design, though, was a coat of arms. Other recurring elements included lions and crowns.

    Chrysler’s Pentastar logo, created by the Lippincott & Marguiles design firm in the early 1960s, was selected from among over 800 other designs. According to its creator Robert Stanley, he wanted "something simple, a classic, dynamic but stable shape for a mark that would lend itself to a highly designed, styled product - We wanted something people could look at and say, ‘This was not done freehand.'"

    The five-point star within a pentagon was used for Chrysler’s corporate identity to visually present the company to the public. It first appeared in company documents and advertisements before being subtly emblazoned on the passenger-side fender of Chrysler models to subconsciously attract attention. By 1981, all Chrysler divisions used the Pentastar exclusively – before it began being phased out in the 1990s to differentiate brand identities.



    Chrysler Valiant
    Chrysler Valiant is the name under which Chrysler marketed its cars in Australia between 1962 and 1981. Initially a rebadged locally assembled Plymouth Valiant from the United States (RV1 (R Series and RV2 (S Series), from the second generation launched in 1963, the Valiant was fully manufactured in Australia.

    The fully Australian manufactured models, commencing with the AP5, were sold as the "Valiant by Chrysler" rather than as the Chrysler Valiant. Standard cars were simply named Valiant, the deluxe verions where called Valiant, and the station was was the Valiant Safari. Local production ended in 1981 following the takeover of operations by Mitsubishi Motors Australia.

    Pacer: the high performance variant of the 4-door Valiant. Added later was a two-door Valiant Hardtop and Pacer Hardtop - essentially, a North American Dodge Dart coupe with the Australian Valiant front sheetmetal and interior trim.

    Charger: took its name from its US counterpart, the Dodge Charger. Both were built on Chrysler's B platform, but the Australian Charger was a completely different vehicle designed and built wholly in Australia. A two door hardtop coupe introduced in 1971, it was a short wheelbase version of the concurrent Chrysler Valiant sedan.

    Centura: the name is said to mean "centre of the universe" or "centre of my world". This midsize car produced by Chrysler Australia between 1975 and 1978, was based on Chrysler Europe's Simca 180. The Centura had limited market success in Australia.



    Datsun/Nissan
    In 1931, Dat Motorcar Co. chose to name its new small car "Datson", a name which indicated the new car's smaller size when compared to the DAT's larger vehicle already in production. When Nissan took control of DAT in 1934, the name "Datson" was changed to "Datsun", because "son" also means "loss" in Japanese, and also to honour the sun depicted in the national flag – thus the name Datsun. The new car's name was an acronym of the surnames of the following company partners: Kenjirō Den, Rokurō Aoyama and Meitarō Takeuchi. By 1986 Nissan had phased out the Datsun name, but re-launched it in June 2013.

    Not only is the Nissan name an abbreviation for the original company, it's also a combination of Japanese characters "ni" ("sun") and "ssan" ("product" or "birth"). Thus, Nissan is a product of Japan, the land of the rising sun. The Datusun/Nissan original logo was a combination of two simple geometric shapes: a blue rectangle over a red circle, with the company name inscribed on the rectangle. The red circle is speculated to pay homage to the Japanese flag. In the early 1990s, this colorful logo was replaced with a chrome outline of the shapes. The silver color represents modernism and sophistication.

    Pulsar: a celestial object, thought to be a rapidly rotating neutron star, that emits regular pulses of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation at rates of up to one thousand pulses per second.

    Stanza: an Italian word for ‘standing or stopping place’ or even ‘room’, however our usage has always meant a group of (usually rhymed) verse lines, or what is often (wrongly) referred to as a ‘verse’ of a poem. Somewhat larger than the Bluebird with styling that recalled the popular Datsun 1600, the car was marketed in Australia as the Datsun Stanza, as the Nissan Violet in Japan, and the Datsun 510 in Canada and the United States. The Australian variant was manufactured in Nissan's Clayton plant in Melbourne, Victoria.

    Datsun Fairlady: named after the hit Broadway musical "My Fair Lady." It was considered a strange name to the rest of the world, but in Japan, it seemed logical to name their new car after the latest winner of the Best Motion Picture Academy Award.

    Skyline: The Skyline name originated from Prince automobile company, which developed and sold the Skyline range of sedans before merging with Nissan-Datsun in 1966. The original Skyline was launched by the Prince Motor Company in April 1957 and was powered by a 1.5-litre engine. The later iteration launched in 1964 called the Prince Skyline GT was powered by a 2.0-litre G7 inline-6 engine shared with the up market Prince Gloria sedan.

    Gloria: Gloria is the anglicized form of the Latin feminine given name gloriae, meaning immortal glory; glory, fame, renown, praise, honor. The Gloria is a large luxury car made from 1959 by the Prince Motor Company, and later by Nissan Motors since its merger with the former - hence being originally marketed as Prince Gloria and later as Nissan Gloria. The Gloria got its name as a tribute when the first series BLSI sedan was presented to the then Crown Prince Akihito, the future Emperor of Japan, and Princess Michiko as an anniversary gift after one year of marriage.

    Cedric: The Cedric name was inspired by the main character, Cedric, in Frances Hodgson Burnett's novel Little Lord Fauntleroy by the Nissan CEO at the time Katsuji Kawamata. The Cedric replaced the Austin A50 Nissan was building under license from Austin Motor Company of England, which was called the Nissan Austin. First produced in 1960, the Nissan Cedric was developed to provide upscale transportation, competing with the Prince Skyline and Gloria which were later merged into the Nissan family. Throughout the many versions of the Cedric, it was always considered to be the prime competitor to the Toyota Crown. The bonnet ornament was inspired by the diamond pattern used by Lincoln but was changed to two right angles set next to each other. In Australia, as with other export markets, commencing with the 4th generation Cedric (from 1975), the model was marketed as the 200C, 220C, 260C, 280C and 300C (until 1985).

    Bluebird: Although Nissan's own materials indicate that the Bluebird name emerged in 1959, some records show that the name first adorned a 988 cc (60.3 cu in), 34 PS (25 kW) four-door sedan in 1957, which was part of the company's 110/210 series. Its engine was based on an Austin design, as Nissan had been building the Austin A50 Cambridge under licence in the 1950s. In September 1963, Nissan brought the Bluebird up-to-date with boxier styling (by Pininfarina), resembling European designs, particularly the Lancia Fulvia. The banana-profiled 410 was built from 1964 to 1967. From 1981 to 1985, Australia followed the Japanese convention by calling its 180B replacement the Bluebird, and had a unique, facelifted rear-wheel-drive version for 1984 and 1985. That car was replaced in 1986 by the Nissan Pintara.

    Pintara: The 4-door Nissan Pintara was manufactured by Nissan Australia from 1986 until 1992. Replacing the locally produced Nissan Bluebird (910), and was based on the Nissan Skyline, the first generation model was built by Nissan Australia at its Clayton, Victoria assembly plant in Melbourne from mid-1986. Under the Button car plan, in which local manufacturers shared models, Ford Australia marketed a rebadged version of the U12 Pintara sedan and hatchback as the Ford Corsair. In addition, Ford provided the tooling and stamped the car's body panels. The U12 model was discontinued in mid-1992 when Nissan Australia ended local production and New Zealand reverted to local assembly of the next generation Bluebird from Japanese kits.

    Silvia: The "Silvia" name is a variation of the word "sylvia", which is a scientific genus term assigned to a class of birds, possibly a reference to the Bluebird which was in production at the time the Silvia was introduced. Silvia is the name given to the company's long-running line of sport coupes based on the Nissan S platform. The Silvia name made its public debut at the Tokyo Motor Show in September 1964 as the "Datsun Coupe 1500". The introductory model was a hand-built coupe (CSP311) based on the Fairlady convertible, styled with input from German Count Albrecht Goertz, who also had a hand in designing Studebakers, the classic BMW 507 and Porsche 911. Most of the vehicles remained in Japan; however, 49 examples were exported to Australia and another 10 went to other countries under the name Datsun Silvia.



    Dodge
    Founded as the Dodge Brothers Company machine shop by brothers Horace Elgin Dodge and John Francis Dodge in the early 1900s, Dodge was originally a supplier of parts and assemblies for Detroit-based automakers and began building complete automobiles under the "Dodge Brothers" brand in 1914.

    Phoenix: borrowed its name from the Dodge Dart Phoenix, but unlike its American namesake it was offered only as a four-door sedan and only with a 318 cubic inch V8 engine. The Phoenix was introduced in May 1960 and positioned above the locally developed Chrysler Royal as Chrysler Australia’s luxury model. Initially a Canadian Dodge Dart with a Plymouth RH drive dashboard, it was imported in CKD packs and assembled at Chrysler Australia's Mile End (Adelaide) facility.

    The SD2 of 1962 featured a shorter wheelbase and a completely new body which was both shorter and narrower than its predecessor, being now based on the downsized US Dodge Dart 440. The 1965 and later Phoenixes were basically the Canadian Plymouth Fury III but featuring the North American Dodge Polara RH drive dashboard. Production was transferred to Port Melbourne in 1970. A decision to close the outdated facility led to the discontinuation of the Phoenix in 1972.




    Ford
    The script of the brand name on Ford's logo/emblem is often believed to have been Henry Ford’s handwriting, but this is not so. It was created by the company’s first chief engineer/designer Childe Harold Wills. Ford was looking for a logo for his vehicles, so Wills, a friend of Ford’s who designed and printed business cards, used the calligraphy from his own cards to stylize the letters.

    in the late 1990s the Ford Motor Company decided it would abandon some of the best-known car names in an effort to streamline its cars with "F" names. The first to go was Escort, which was dropped in favor of the Ford Focus.

    Popular: The Ford Popular, often called the Ford Pop, is a car from Ford UK that was built in England between 1953 and 1962. When launched, it was Britain's lowest priced car. The name is believed to have been coined as it was marketed as a car that everyone could afford.

    Anglia: The Ford Anglia is a compact car. At the time of its introduction, the A494A Tourer was the cheapest new car on the Australian market. The Anglia name was applied to various models between 1939 and 1967. It was replaced by the Ford Escort. The reason for the name's selection is not known. Anglia is the medieval Latin name for England, and more recetly for the eastern part of England, including East Anglia, Mid Anglia and West Anglia.

    Prefect: the name is a word meaning a chief officer, magistrate, or regional governor in certain countries. The Ford Prefect is a line of British cars which was produced by Ford UK between 1938 and 1961 as a more upmarket version of the Ford Popular and Ford Anglia models.

    Consul: The name is a word meaning an official appointed by a state to live in a foreign city and protect the state's citizens and interests there. A compact 4-cylinder saloon, the Ford Consul was manufactured by Ford UK from 1951 to 1962. The name was later revived for a model produced by Ford in both Britain and Germany from 1972 to 1975.

    Corsair: the name means a privateer or pirate, especially one operating along the southern shore of the Mediterranean in the 16th–18th centuries.

    Cortina: In the 1960s and 70s, Ford UK used the names of popular resorts for its new models. Cortina an alpine town in Northern Italy. It is a winter sport resort known for its skiing trails, scenery, accommodation, shops and après-ski scene, and for its jet set and Italian aristocratic crowd. The Ford Cortina was built by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1983, and was the United Kingdom's best-selling car of the 1970s. The car's project development name was "Archbishop".

    Capri: The name recalls the Italian holiday island of Capri in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrento Peninsula. The car was named Colt during its development stage, but Ford was unable to use the name, as it was trademarked by Mitsubishi. The Ford Capri is a fastback coupe built by Ford Motor Company between 1968 and 1986, designed by American Philip T. Clark, who was also involved in the design of the Ford Mustang. It was intended to be an European equivalent of the Ford Mustang.

    Grenada: the name recalls an island state in the Caribbean, in the Windward Islands: formerly a British colony. The Ford Granada is a large executive car manufactured by Ford Europe in Cologne, Germany, and Dagenham, UK, from 1972 until 1994.

    Zephyr: the name means a soft and gentle breeze, from the Greek zephyros - the west wind. A mid-sized 4 door saloon, the Ford Zephyr was manufactured by Ford of Britain from 1950 to 1972

    Zodiac: the name of a a belt of the heavens, including all apparent positions of the sun, moon, and most familiar planets. It is divided into twelve equal divisions or signs (Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, Pisces). The the Ford Zodiac and Ford Executive were luxury variants of the Ford Zephyr. They were the largest passenger cars in the British Ford range from 1950 until their replacement by the Consul and Granada models in 1972.

    Escort: The Ford Escort is a small family car which was manufactured by Ford of Europe from 1968 until 2000. The Ford Escort name was also applied to several small car types produced in North America by Ford between 1981 and 2000. In 2014, Ford revived the Escort name for a car based on the second-generation Ford Focus sold on the Chinese market. Unlike the first Escort (which was developed by Ford of Britain), the second generation was developed jointly between the UK and Ford of Germany. Codenamed "Brenda" during its development, it used the same mechanical components, floorpan and core structure as the Mark I.

    Focus: In 1998, Ford announced an all-new car, the Focus, which replaced the Escort and superseded the "Escort" name that had been in use for 30 years. All engines except the 1.6 L petrol and 1.8 L turbo diesel were dropped, as were the three-door hatchback, four-door saloon and cabriolet bodystyles (except in mainland Europe, New Zealand, South Africa and South America).

    Laser: The Ford Laser is a compact car, originally a subcompact car in the first three generations, which was sold by Ford in Asia, Oceania, and parts of South America, and Africa. It has generally been available as a sedan or hatchback, although convertible, wagon and pick-up versions have also been available in different markets. The sedan, and briefly station wagon, versions were badged Ford Meteor in Australia between 1981 and 1987. The Ford Meteor name was also used in South Africa. The Ford Laser was a restyled version of the Familia/323 models produced by Mazda in Japan from 1980 onwards. Ford had acquired a 25% stake in Mazda in 1979. Platform and assembly-line sharing with the locally produced Mazda Familia in Japan allowed the Laser in that market to be offered with a plethora of engine, paint and trim configurations not available anywhere else in the world.

    Sierra:The Ford Sierra is a mid-size car or large family car that was built by Ford Europe from 1982 to 1993. It was designed by Uwe Bahnsen, Robert Lutz and Patrick le Quément. The code used during development was "Project Toni". Its name came from the Spanish word for mountain range. It was mainly manufactured in Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom, although Sierras were also assembled in Ireland, Argentina, Venezuela, South Africa and New Zealand.

    Fairmont: The Ford Fairmont was an upmarket model of the Ford Falcon from 1965 to 2008. It featured a higher level of standard equipment than corresponding Falcon models of the same series. The surname Fairmont was first found in Lancashire where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor. The Saxon influence of English history diminished after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, however this Saxon surname survived and was first referenced in the 12th century (1169) when Faremann held estates there.

    Fairlane: The name is derived from Henry Ford's estate, Fair Lane, near Dearborn, Michigan. The Ford Fairlane was sold between 1955 and 1970 by Ford in North America initially as a full-sized car, but became a mid-sized car from the 1962 model year. In Australia, the Fairlane was a larger, more luxurious version of the Falcon.

    Galaxie: The Ford Galaxie is a full-sized car that was built in the United States by Ford for model years 1959 through to 1974. The name was used for the top models in Ford's full-size range from 1958 until 1961, in a marketing attempt to appeal to the excitement surrounding the Space Race.

Falcon: Edsel Ford first used the term "Falcon" for a more luxurious Ford he designed in 1935, the connection to the bird of that name being that it is high flying. He decided the new car did not fit with Ford's other offerings, so this design eventually became the Mercury. The Falcon name then reappeared in 1955 as a Chrysler concept vehicle, which was built with the intention of going head to head with the Ford Thunderbird (hence the similar name) and Chevrolet’s Corvette. In 1958, both Chrysler and Ford had internally named their new small car the ‘Falcon’. In the auto industry all names need to be registered with the Automotive Manufacturers Association, and in a case of true coincidence Ford managed to register their ‘Falcon’ a matter of only 20 minutes ahead Chrysler, ensuring the name was Ford’s. Chrysler was left to search for a new name - and settled in Valiant.

The Australian Ford Falcon is a full-sized car that was manufactured by Ford Australia from 1960 to 2016. Initially based on the Canadian Ford Falcon, it was progressively re-engineered locally for the harsher Australian conditions. In the US and Canada, the Ford Falcon is a front-engine, rear-drive six passenger compact car produced by Ford from 1959 to 1970, across three generations. It was created to compete agains smaller European cars such as Fiats, Renaults, Toyotas, and Volkswagens in the Americas.



Holden
In 1852, James Alexander Holden emigrated to South Australia from Walsall, England, and in 1856 established J.A. Holden & Co., a saddlery business in Adelaide. In 1908, the business - then Holden & Frost Ltd - moved into the automotive field under the name Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd, even building the Ford Model T for a period. It became a subsidiary of the United States-based General Motors (GM) in 1931, when the company was renamed General Motors-Holden's Ltd. It was renamed Holden Ltd in 1998, adopting the name GM Holden Ltd in 2005.

During the production run of Holden's first model from 1948, it was always officially known as the 48-215, the "48" representing the first year production, and the "215" being the size of its motor (2.15 litres).

Though GMH never officially used the FX and FJ model identification code ("FX" was a parts list number for a front crossmember modification - F for front, and X for crossmember - the origins of "FJ" is not known) they acknowledged the principle of it when they named the FE in 1956. Though I have never seen an official explanation as to the meaning of the code, it has been said that the letter "F" came to represent the fact that vehicles starting with that code were introduced in the 1950s, which explains why, when working backwards, the first three models introduced in the 1960s started with the letter "E", and why the body shape introduced with the FE in 1956 did not retain the "F" prefix for the whole of its production life, but changed to "E" in the new decade.

The pattern of counting backwards to identify the decade and year production commenced does seem to work up until the mid 1960s, with the FE (1956), the FC (1958), the FB (1959 - went on sale in January 1960), and then the EK (1961) and EJ (1962). Having been introduced in 1963, one would expect the EH model to have been called the EI, but perhaps a little was jumped because EJ rolls off the tongue better than EI.

After that, the next nine models have an "H" prefix, though production started in the middle of a decade and ended in the next. It is believed this letter refers to the international General Motors platform that underpins it, in this case it was "H" for Holden. Later cars in the Commodore series had the prefix V, a reference to these vehicle having been built on the "V" platform. The "T" and "M" code for the Gemini and Barina models refer to the platforms that underpin them. The second letter of the model code seems to follow no set pattern, though there probably was a reason for each model's specific designation.

Monaro: a region in the Snowy Mountains, NSW. It is an Australian Aboriginal name meaning breast.

Gemini: The Holden Gemini is a compact car that was produced by Holden and sold in Australasia from 1975 to 1986. It was based on the Japanese Isuzu Gemini, one of the many models based on the GM T-car platform, and it is from that car that the Holden counterpart took its name. The first Gemini was the Bellett Gemini, first seen in November 1974.

Torana: an Australian Aboriginal word meaning 'to fly'. Introduced in May 1967 to replace the HA series Vauxhall Viva in the Australian market, the first Torana model was a mildly facelifted HB series Vauxhall Viva. The 3rd generation Torana - the LH - introduced in March 1974, was the Australian variation of other GM products of the time sharing its overall size and profile, notably the Opel Ascona and the FE series Vauxhall Victor. In November 1976 the four-cylinder Torana was revised and relaunched as the Holden LX Sunbird.

Camira: a female name of Australian Aboriginal origin, meaning 'of the wind'.

Caprice: a work of sportive fancy in art.

Kingswood: The Sydney suburb of Kingswood is named after Kingswood, an urban area in South Gloucestershire, England, on the eastern border of the City of Bristol. Sydney's Kingswood is a typical western Sydney working class suburb, and it is believed its name was given to the new 1968 model Holden to infer it was a tough, reliable and down to earth Australian working man's car.

Commodore: A Commodore is a senior naval rank used in many navies which is equivalent to Brigadier and Air Commodore that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. The name was first used by GM's European division, Opel, for its up-market placement for its Rekord. The name was chosen for the replacement of Holden's Kingswood because, at a time, General Motors used the term "the General leads the field", in its advertising, infering it held the top ranking position in its field, just as a General is the highest Army ranking.

Honda

The Honda Motor Company gets its name from its founder, Soichiro Honda, whose name means "one from the base of the fields" in Japanese. He started working as a mechanic tuning race cars and eventually started a piston rings company, briefly attending engineering school to obtain a piston contract with Toyota. After developing an automated production process that could employ unskilled workers, Soichiro Honda eventually began building motorbikes and founded an automotive brand in 1948.

When Honda began producing automobiles with the introduction of the T360 in 1963, a large "H" appeared as the brand’s badge. It’s remains largely unchanged 50 years after it appeared on the blue hood of the T360. Honda wanted its logo to reflect trustworthiness, reliability, and durability - and the wide/thick lettering reflects that. The "H" is broader at the top and narrower at the bottom, as if its arms are raised toward the sky - a fitting stance considering the company’s belief in reaching for one’s dreams (the official motto being "The Power of Dreams").

Accord: harmony, or agreement

Prelude: introduction to a pice of music



Isuzu
Isuzu Motors Ltd is the world’s largest truck producer, specializing in commercial vehicles and diesel engines. Its full name being Isuzu Jidōsha Kabushiki-Kaisha, the company was named after a river that flows past a Japanese shrine. The name Isuzu translates in English as "fifty bells." Isuzu began in 1916 when the Tokyo Ishikawajima Shipbuilding and Engineering company wanted to expand its production to involve automobiles. By 1922, its first car was built in partnership with British manufacturer Wolseley Motors. Isuzu Motors Ltd was formed in 1949.

Bellett: Designed by Isuzu, the Bellett replaced the Isuzu Hillman Minx, manufactured by Isuzu under license with the Rootes Group. It was manufactured between 1963 and 1973. As the word Isuzu translated into English means "fifty bells." The nameplate "Bellett" referred to "a smaller bell (Bellel)", the Bellel being a previous, larger model manufactured by Isuzu.

Gemini: Gemini is the third astrological sign in the zodiac, originating from the constellation of Gemini, represented by the twins Castor and Pollux. After General Motors acquired a stake in Isuzu, the Bellett was replaced by GM's "global" T-car, initially called Isuzu Bellett Gemini and later simply Isuzu Gemini. The name was selected as the car was the twin of the Opel Kadett C, both of which were built on General Motors' T-car platform.



Jaguar
The Jaguar brand actually began as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922, founded by young British entrepreneurs William Walmsley and William Lyons. It wasn’t until 1935 that the British company added the "Jaguar" name to its identity when it released the SS Jaguar sedan as a joint venture with chassis producer Standard Motor Company. Hence, the "SS" in this case became "Standard-Swallow." Once World War II changed the connotation of SS in the public’s eye, the company’s name and logo changed in 1945, dropping the "SS" and references to the swallow. Going by Jaguar Cars, the automaker introduced the emblem of a pouncing jaguar, representing the vehicles’ grace, strength, and speed. The use of silver and black coloring further conveys sophistication.



Kia
Kia, the oldest automaker in Korea, began in June 1944 as a manufacturer of bicycle components. Chul-Ho Kim, who founded the company, had a specific name in mind for the company. According to the automaker, the name "Kia" is a combination of "ki" meaning arise or come up out of and "A", signifying Asia. Thus, Kia can be defined as "rising out of Asia." Kia has two logos: the text-based symbol for international use and another for only South Korea.



Lamborghini
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese. The company is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary Audi. Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company was noted for using a rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firm's ownership changed three times after 1973; in 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.

The world of bullfighting is a key part of Lamborghini's identity. In 1962, Ferruccio Lamborghini visited the Seville ranch of Don Eduardo Miura, a renowned breeder of Spanish fighting bulls. Lamborghini, a Taurus himself, was so impressed by the majestic Miura animals that he decided to adopt a raging bull as the emblem for the automaker he would open shortly. After producing two cars with alphanumeric designations, Lamborghini once again turned to the bull breeder for inspiratio when he named the Miura after their line of bulls.

The automaker would continue to draw upon the bullfighting connection in future years. The Islero was named for the Miura bull that killed the famed bullfighter Manolete in 1947. Espada is the Spanish word for sword, sometimes used to refer to the bullfighter himself. The Jarama name carried a special double meaning; though it was intended to refer only to the historic bullfighting region in Spain, Ferruccio was concerned about confusion with the also historic Jarama motor racing track.

The Countach broke from the bullfighting tradition, its name being a Piedmontese expletive. Legend has it that stylist Nuccio Bertone uttered the word in surprise when he first saw the Countach prototype, "Project 112". The LM002 (LM for Lamborghini Militaire) sport utility vehicle and the Silhouette (named after the popular racing category of the time) were other exceptions to the tradition.

The Jalpa of 1982 was named for a bull breed; Diablo, for the Duke of Veragua's ferocious bull famous for fighting an epic battle against El Chicorro in Madrid in 1869; Diablo means "devil" in Spanish. Murciélago, the legendary bull whose life was spared by El Lagartijo for his performance in 1879; Gallardo, named for one of the five ancestral castes of the Spanish fighting bull breed; and Reventón, the bull that defeated young Mexican torero Félix Guzmán in 1943. The Estoque concept of 2008 was named for the estoc, the sword traditionally used by matadors during bullfights.It's also worth noting that it was reported that Lamborghini was moving away from naming its cars after fighting bulls and that Huracan is Spanish for a hurricane. The last part is true, but Huracan was also the name of a famous bull that fought in 1879.



Lancia
The Lancia logo was a simple design originally created by Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia. The logo shows a lance and shield with a flag, symbolizing honor and strength of its cars throughout the years.

Post war Lancias were named after Roman roads. After the marque was purchased by Alfa Romeo in the 1970s, the company often used letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names, following on from its parent company (Alfa Romeo) use of the first letter of the Greek alphabet for its name, followed by Beta, Gamma, Delta for its new subsiduary's models. Exceptions were the Lancia 2000 Berlina and the Stratos.

Aurelia: establishing a post-war Lancia tradition, the car was named after a Roman road: the Via Aurelia, leading from Rome to Pisa.

Flaminia: named after the Via Flaminia, the road leading from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini). This respected the established Lancia tradition of naming individual models after Roman roads.

Fulvia: named after Via Fulvia, the Roman road leading from Tortona to Turin. In 2003 the Fulvia name was revived on a concept car, the Lancia Fulvia Coupé Concept, inspired by the original 1965 Coupé. Designed by Centro Stile Lancia under the direction of Flavio Manzoni working with Alberto Dilillo, the car made its début at the September 2003 Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung in Frankfurt am Main.

Flavia: named after Via Flavia, Roman road leading from Trieste (Tergeste) to Dalmatia.



Lexus
It is commonly believed that the name Lexu comes from "Luxury - Executive - US", the brief given by the Toyota company for the creation of a new Luxury Executive brand for the US market. However, according to Team One, Toyota’s advertising unit for its new luxury brand in 1986, the name never had a specific meaning. This conflicts with the Lexus’ website which claims it’s a combination of root words. "Among these are the Latin "luxus" and the French "luxe" for elegance and sumptuousness, as well as the Greek "lexicon" for language and words." The website explains that the result is a fresh, distinct word that conveys luxury in any language.

"Lexus" wasn’t the first name the group developed. In fact, 219 prospective names were initially considered - "Lexus" wasn’t even on the list! The front-runner was "Alexis," which it is said was eventually was reduced to "Lexis" and finally "Lexus." That title beat out entrants like Verone, Chaparel, Vectre, and Calibre.



Lotus
The name Lotus is a girl's name of Greek origin meaning "lotus flower". Lotus is one of the most exotic and languorous of the flower names, with intriguing significance in both Buddhism and Hinduism, symbolizing purity, grace and spiritual growth--not to mention a familiar yoga position.

The company was formed as Lotus Engineering Ltd. by engineers Colin Chapman and Colin Dare, both graduates of University College, London, in 1952, but had earlier origins in 1948 when Chapman built his first racing car in a garage. The four letters in the middle of the logo stand for the initials of company founder, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman. When the logo was created, Colin Chapman's original partners Michael and Nigel Allen were led to believe that the letters stood for Colin Chapman and the Allen Brothers.

Elan: impetuous rush.

Elite: the pick of the bunch, the best.

Eclat: social distinction or a conspicuous success.

Elise: a French diminutive of Elizabeth, which means "God is my oath". In France, it is pronounced more like "Elize".

Europa: latinized form of Greek Europe, which meant "wide face"; from eurys meaning "wide" and ops meaning "face, eye". In Greek mythology Europa was a Phoenician princess who was abducted and taken to Crete by Zeus in the guise of a bull.



Maserati
The Maserati company was founded in December 1914 by the brothers Maserati. Unlike other popular brothers in automotive history, there were not two or three Maserati brothers, but a whopping seven. Alfieri headed the launch of the company, and the rest of his brothers assisted with designing and engineering the machines–that is, apart from Carlo, a test pilot who died during a race in 1910, and Mario, who was not interested in engineering or being part of the auto industry.

Brother Mario lent his artistic talents to create the perfect emblem for the brand in 1926. His inspiration was the trident held by Neptune (known in Greek mythology as Poseidon) in the Fontana de Nettuno statue in Bologna’s Piazza Maggiore. This city served as the hometown of the Maserati family and location of the company’s first plant before headquarters were moved to Modena. The image represents Neptune’s command over the seven seas and Maserati’s command over the space between them. The red trident encircled by a white oval was designed to compete with the sophisticated appearance of other Italian brand labels.

In the 1960s and 70s, Maserati's four-seaters have often been named after racetracks suggested by Adolfo Orsi Jr. Two door cars were named after winds.

Mistral: named after a cold northerly wind of southern France, it was also the first in a series of classic Maseratis to be given the name of a wind. It was named at the suggestion of Colonel John Simone, business partner of the French importer Jean Thepenier, a great friend of Poltrona Frua, the car's interior stylist.

Ghibli: the name for the hot dry south-westerly wind of the Libyan desert. It is also the nickname for Italian scouting planes. Implying both speed and heat, the Ghibli kicks up dust with the intensity of these desert storms and powers across the landscape at hurricane speeds.

Khamsin: following Maserati's tradition it was named after a wind: the Khamsin, a hot, violent gust blowing in the Egyptian desert for fifty days a year.

Bora: in common with other Maserati cars of the era, it is named after a wind, Bora being the cool, fierce Adriatic wind that blows from the north in Trieste, Italy.

Merak: not named after a wind but after a star from the constellation 'Ursa Major', used to locate the North Star. The Merak and the Bora share the front part of bodyshell up to the doors. The front ends differ, mainly by the use of dual chrome bumpers on the Merak, in place of twin trapezoidal grilles on the Bora, but the similarities end at the B-pillar.

Kyalami: named after the Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit in South Africa where a Maserati-powered Cooper T81 had won the 1967 South African Grand Prix.

Sebring: named after Maserati's 1957 racing victory at the 12 Hours of Sebring.

Quottroporte: an Italian word meaning four doors.

Mexico: The Maserati Mexico's design derived from a 2+2 prototype bodywork shown on the Vignale stand at the October 1965 Salone di Torino and built upon a 4.9-litre 5000 GT chassis, rebodied after it had been damaged. As the car was sold to Mexican president Adolfo López Mateos after the show, the model became known as the Mexico. By coincidence, John Surtees won the Mexican Grand Prix on a Cooper-Maserati T81 the following year.

Indy: Vignale's prototype was preferred, and the production model was launched by Maserati at the Geneva Motor Show the following March. The car was christened Indy in honour of Maserati's two victories at the Indy 500.

Levante: Debuted in 2011, the Maserati Levante was named after the Spanish word for a warm, Mediterranean wind that can change from mild to windstorm in an instant.
Early Mazda logo used for 16 years—from 1959 to 1975.

Mazda
Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co., Ltd, founded in Hiroshima, Japan, 30 January 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. in 1927. The company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the beginning bore that name, starting with the Mazda R360 in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962.

The company's name is the Westernized pronunciation of the Mazda Corporation founder’s name - Jujiro Matsuda. He was known to be a fervently spiritual man and honored the company with the name it has kept for almost 100 years.

Interestly, Ahura Mazda was one of the gods of the foremost civilizations in Western Asia. Ahura Mazda is the god of intelligence, wisdom, and harmony. He has been recognized as the symbol of the birth of the Western and Eastern civilizations. He is also considered to represent the automobile culture. "Mazda" means ‘wisdom,’ while "Ahura" stands for ‘lord’ in Avestan, an Iranian language. He was also the name of the Zoroastrian God. The Japanese have been strongly influenced by Zoroastrianism, which is known to be a peaceful religion.



Over the years, Mazda has used six different bages Its current badge, introduced in 1997, might remind you of those simplified cartoon sketches of birds in flight. While there’s actually some truth in that observation, the influences and history of the Mazda logo are more subtle - and fascinating - than you’d expect. The Mazda logo is actually a highly-styled "M" with its arms raised like wings, symbolizing the brand’s "flight toward the future." This emphasizes the wide "V" angle in the middle of the "M," which represents the automaker’s self-proclaimed creativity, vitality, flexibility, and passion. It’s circled by the future, the doorway to the 21st century. Overall, it intends to appear sharp, evocative, and hopeful.

Cosmo: dervived from the Cosmos. Mazda chose to use the name, reflecting international cultural fascination with the Space Race, as Mazda wanted to showcase the rotary engine as forward-thinking, with a focus on future developments and technology.

Capella: named after Capella, the brightest star in the constellation Auriga, the sixth-brightest in the night sky and the third-brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus and Vega.

Bongo: named for the African Bongo, a type of antelope. The Mazda Bongo van also formed the basis for the long running Kia Bongo range.

Familia: meaning family, a reference to the cars with that name being geared towards the family.

Luce: The name was taken from the Italian word for "light". The name was also in common use among Italian car manufacturers of the 1960s for their spacious 2+2 models, leading many to believe the name meant Luxury.

Miata: The name miata derives from Old High German for "reward". The model was launched as the Eunos Roadster in Japan, and is marketed as the MX-5 in most countries. Widely noted for its small, light, technologically modern, dynamically balanced and minimally complex design, the MX-5 has frequently been called a spiritual successor to 1950s and '60s Italian and British roadster sports cars. The Lotus Elan was used as a design benchmark.

Lantis: The name Lantis is created from the Latin phrase "Latens Curtis", which roughly translates as "To secretly shorten". The Mazda Lantis is a series of two cars sold in Japan from 1993 to 1997. In the rest of the world it was also known as 323F, Astina, Allegro Hatchback or Artis Hatchback.



Mercedes-Benz
Gottlieb Daimler originally founded Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) in 1890, while Carl Benz began Benz & Cie in 1883. Both businesses laid the foundation of motorized vehicle transportation. After Daimler passed away in 1900, chief engineer Wilhelm Maybach took over and brought on racing enthusiast Emil Jellinek as a partner. Jellinek’s daughter Mercedes — a Spanish girl’s name meaning "grace" — was the inspiration for the later trade name.


Mercedes Jellinek, age 12, in 1900, a year before her name was first used as part of the trade name.

Some automakers’ logos change every decade as they struggle to establish a credible brand identity, while others have remained consistent for a century. One emblem that has come to represent quality, innovation, and tradition in the automotive industry is Mercedes-Benz’s three-pointed star. This iconic design has adorned the grilles and radiators of quality vehicles for a hundred years–as well as many personal accessories carried by enthusiasts.

In 1909, Daimler’s sons Paul and Adolf recalled an 1872 picture postcard sent by their father to their mother with a three-pointed star marking the location of his house in Germany with the explanation that one day the star would shine over his factory and bring prosperity. DMG took the star as the company’s logo, trademarking three- and four-pointed stars but only using the three-pointed one. The logo began with a blue color but was changed to its signature silver after its involvement in the first Grand Prix at the Nurburgring in 1934. At the same time, Benz & Cie trademarked its own logo: a laurel wreath surrounding the company’s name. When the merger between DMG and Benz & Cie occured in 1926, the company logos combined to become a laurel wreath surrounding a three-pointed star. The company became known as Daimler-Benz AG, later Mercedes-Benz using its trade name.

According to the company, the three-pointed star today represents the automaker’s drive toward universal motorization with its engines dominating the land, sea, and air (three points).

Mercedes used to have a letter code which told the people about the features of the car. The code contained out of a three digit number followed by up to three letters. In this letter code S stood for "Sonderklasse" (special class = luxury class; E stood for "Einspritzung" (fuel injection); L stood for "long wheelbase". SL represents Sports Luxury.

Outside of the Mercedes marketing world the abbreviation SE stands for "Special Edition" or Special Equipment, depending on the brand.



Mitsubishi

Although the Mitsubishi Group consists of dozens of companies varying in specialization–from banks and chemicals to plastics and aircraft–the corporation has become primarily known for its commercial and passenger vehicles. The automaker’s identity has become synonymous with its iconic logo, and Mitsubishi puts a lot of value in that brand recognition, securing nearly 5,500 registrations of the emblem in 140 countries.

Mitsubishi’s three-diamond mark carries more than 140 years of tradition with it, beginning with the Japanese corporation’s inception. When founding Mitsubishi (originally a maritime transport company) in the 1870s, Yataro Iwasaki decided the logo should combine two important family crests: the triple-oak-leaf crest of the Tosa Clan from where Yataro was born and the three-tiered water chestnut leaves of the Iwasaki family. Thus, the logo is an amalgamation of two family crests which–after some widening and simplification–was registered in 1914 and has remained the same for 100 years.

The three diamonds in the Mitsubishi logo represent reliability, integrity, and success. The three-point fan represents "sealing the deal" between the customer and the product being provided by Mitsubishi. Thus, the business has strict usage and identity guidelines that monitor usage in publications and on products. Mitsubishi even has a Corporate Name and Trademark Committee that will take legal action against abuse of the logo.

Lancer: a soldier of a cavalry regiment armed with lances. The name had its origins in the 1950s. Dodge first used the Lancer name from 1955 to 1959 to designate the two- and four-door hardtop (no B-pillar) models in the full-sized Coronet, Royal, and Custom Royal lines. The theme of these names was royal military guards.

Starion: The Mitsubishi takeover of Chrysler's manufacturing operations in Australia led to the introduction of a number of new models, the most notable of which were a pair of 2-door coupes - the Scorpion and its big brother, the Starion. The story goes that the Japanese bosses of Mitsubishi in Japan had been looking at producing a car that would go head to head with the Ford Mustang in the US, and asked their stateside bosses to suggest an appropriate name.

As the Mustang and others like it were known as Pony Cars, the name Stallion was suggested. When the car they developed was finally released it was given the suggested name, but with its Japanese pronunciation - Starion.

Galant: the model name was derived from the French word galant, meaning "chivalrous". The first generation of Galants was named the Colt Galant (1971), which took its name from the Mitubishi Colt (1965).

Sigma: named after the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, transliterated as ‘s’. Introduced as the Chrysler Sigma (1977), it became the Mitsubishi Sigma in 1981 when took over Chrysler’s car manufacturing operations in Adelaide.

Magna: The name is Latin, and means literally 'Great Greece'. magna mater Latin meaning 'great mother'; a mother-goddess; a fertility goddess, especially Cybele.

Colt: a nameplate that has been applied to a number of automobiles since 1962. It was first introduced with a series of kei and subcompact cars in the 1960s, and then for the export version of the subcompact Mitsubishi Mirage between 1978 and 2002. Initially, Mitsubishi cars were marketed under the ‘Colt’ name. The models sold in Australia were drawn from a line of small cars sold predominantly in Japan, and continued on in various similar forms until 1971.

Delica: its name is a contraction of the English language phrase Delivery car. The passenger car versions were known as Delica Star Wagon from 1979 until the 1994.

Pajero: the Pajero nameplate derives from Leopardus pajeros, the Pampas cat, a small wild cat native to South America.

Triton: The name Triton means God Of The Sea and is of Greek origin. Triton is a name that's been used by parents who are considering baby names for boys. In Greek mythology, the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. Depicted as having the head and torso of a man and the tail of a fish.

Outlander: a person who is not from your country or area.



Pontiac
The Pontiac brand was introduced by General Motors in 1926 as the companion marque to GM's Oakland division, and shared the GM A platform. Purchased by General Motors in 1909, Oakland continued to produce modestly priced automobiles until 1931 when it was renamed Pontiac. It was named after the famous Ottawa chief who had also given his name to the city of Pontiac, Michigan where the car was produced.

Pontiac or Obwandiyag (c. 1714/20 – April 20, 1769) was an Odawa war chief known for his role in the war named for him, from 1763 to 1766 leading Native Americans in a struggle against British military occupation of the Great Lakes region. It followed the British victory in the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War.



A Native American headdress was used as a logo until 1956. This was updated to the Native American red arrowhead design for 1957 in all usage except the high-beam indicator lamp, which retained the original logo through 1970. The arrowhead logo is also known as the Dart.

Chieftain: The Pontiac Chieftain was produced from 1949 to 1958. The 1949 Chieftain and Streamliner models were the first all new car designs to come from Pontiac in the post World War II years. Previous cars had been 1942 models with minor revisions. Its name recalls the Native American war chief, Pontiac or Obwandiyag (c. 1714/20 – April 20, 1769).

Bonneville: The Pontiac Bonneville was built by Pontiac from 1957 to 2005. Bonnevilles were full-sized, with the exception of a brief period of mid-size between 1982–1986. The brand was introduced as a limited production performance convertible during the 1957 model year. The name was taken from the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, the site of much early auto racing and most of the world's land speed record runs, which was named in turn after U.S. Army officer Benjamin Bonneville.

Catalina: The name Catalina was first used on the 1950 Chieftain Series 25/27 hardtop, Pontiac's top trim level package at the time, and later added to the Star Chief in 1954, Pontiac's equivalent of the Chevrolet Bel Air. Initially, the name was used strictly to denote hardtop body styles, first appearing in the 1950 Chieftain Eight and DeLuxe Eight lines. In 1959, the Catalina became a separate model, as the entry-level full-size Pontiac. The name is taken from Catalina Island, California.

Parisienne: Parisienne or La Parisienne means a grammatically female person or thing from Paris, France. The Pontiac Parisienne is a full-size rear-wheel drive vehicle that was sold by Pontiac on the GM B platform in Canada from 1958 to 1986 and in the United States from 1983 to 1986. For most of its run, the Canadian Parisienne was nearly mechanically identical to the American Chevrolet Impala. The Parisienne wagon continued under the Safari nameplate until 1989.

All Potiacs sold in Australia were sourced from GM Canada. GM-H sold Pontiac Laurentian sedans from 1959 to 1963. For model year 1964 the Laurentian badge was dropped in favour of "Parisienne" but this car was still sold as a "Laurentian" in New Zealand.

Laurentian: an adjective,, relating to, or being in the vicinity of the St. Lawrence River. From the 1950s through 1970s, GM of Canada offered a unique hierarchy of full-size Pontiac series different from the American Catalina, Star Chief, Executive and Bonneville lines. In Canada, Pontiac was marketed as a low priced car, rather than a medium price make as in the U.S.

The Pontiac Parisienne debuted in Australia in 1964 and was available as a locally assembled 4 door sedan (pillared) with the 283 cubic inch engine. In 1965 the Pontiac Parisienne 4 door (pillarless) Sport Sedan Hardtop and Chevrolet's Pillarless Impala Sports Sedan were introduced, but two years later the (1967 Model) the pillared sedans ceased to be available. 1965 also saw the introduction of the 327 cubic inch V8 for the Pillarless versions and the 283 cubic engine remained as the power plant to the pillared versions. In 1966 the Pontiac Parisienne Thin Pillar cost £5,799 and £6,099 for the Pillarless, or Sports Sedan version.



Porsche

Initially, there was no symbol on Porsche’s cars, only the automaker’s name. What isn’t agreed upon is how the crest originated. North Americans contend that in 1951, Ferdinand Porsche’s son Ferry met with American Porsche distributor Max Hoffman at a New York restaurant. Hoffman suggested the automaker needed a symbol or mascot, which Ferry sketched onto a napkin. After bringing the design back to Germany, Ferry had it cleaned up and put on the company’s cars.

However, Germans contend that the Porsche logo was designed by engineer Franz Xaver Reimspiess, who worked with Ferdinand at his request to make a lasting company emblem (prior to his death in 1951). No American-suggested napkin drawing ever happened. Either way, the first Porsche badge appeared in 1953 on the horn button and a couple years later on the front of a 356 Coupe.

The Porsche emblem, which has the appearance of a coat of arms and is popularly known for being copied by Ferruccio Lamborghini, is inspired by two designs. The rearing black horse in the center is from Stuttgart’s coat of arms, also called its city seal, which has included horses in its designs since the 14th century.

Not only was this an homage to where the company was based and returned to life after hiding in Gmund during World War II, Porsche sees the wild animal as an expression of the company’s forward-thrusting power. Porsche’s horse is a bit more dynamic, with thinner legs, a raised head, and flowing hair. The antlers and the red/black stripes are taken from the state crest of Württemberg, where Stuttgart is located. The original crests can still be ordered through Porsche centers and are hand-made in Germany.

911: This famous model originally was designated as the "Porsche 901" (901 being its internal project number). A total of 82 cars were built as which were badges as 901s. However, French automobile manufacturer Peugeot protested on the grounds that in France it had exclusive rights to car names formed by three numbers with a zero in the middle. Instead of selling the new model with a different name in France, Porsche changed the name to 911. Internally, the cars' part numbers carried on the prefix 901 for years. Production began in September 1964, with the first 911s exported to the US in February 1965.

Carrera: the Carrera name was first used in 1972, and means to race or run. Specifically, Porsche was referring to the Carrera Panamericana Mexican endurance race, where the brand had great success with its 550 Spyder models. The first of the five races was in 1950 and ran on the north-south Mexican section of the then-new Pan-American Highway over five days. It was known to be the most dangerous race of any type in the world.

Cayman: First launched in the 2006 model year, the Cayman is a coupé derived from Porsche's second and third generation Boxster roadster. Contrary to popular belief, the car is not named after the Cayman Islands. Both the car and the islands are named after the caiman, a member of the alligator family. When the Cayman arrived at dealerships for sale, the automaker adopted four caimans at Stuttgart's Wilhelma Zoo.

Panamera: The Porsche Panamera is a mid/full-sized luxury vehicle. It is front-engined and has a rear-wheel-drive layout, with all-wheel drive versions also available. The Panamera's name is derived, like the Porsche Carrera lineage, from the Carrera Panamericana race.

Macan: Macan is the Javanese word for the Indonesian Tiger. The Macan was originally known by its code name Cajun, a portmanteau of Cayenne Junior.

Cayenne: takes its name from the hot cayenne peppers; Cayenne is also the name of the capital city of French Guiana, located in South America. The Porsche Cayenne is a series of mid-size sport utility vehicles manufactured since 2002. The Cayenne shares its platform, body frame, doors and electronics with the similar Volkswagen Touareg and Audi Q7.

Boxster: The 718 Boxster takes its name from a combination of the words “Boxer engine” and “roadster.”



Rolls Royce
Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero-engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they quickly developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world".

The current Rolls Royce logo, which was the centrepiece of a more elaborate emblem, was originally displayed in the colour red. However, it was changed to black in 1934 after the death of Henry Royce. It is a common belief that the colour was changed as a mark of respect to the death of Royce, however it was Henry himself who had already decided to change the color of their badge because he realized that red can clash to some of their models' color.



The Spirit of Ecstasy, also called Emily, Silver Lady, or Flying Lady, is the bonnet ornament sculpture on Rolls-Royce cars. It is in the form of a woman leaning forwards with her arms outstretched behind and above her. Billowing cloth runs from her arms to her back, resembling wings.

The first Rolls-Royce motorcars did not feature radiator mascots; they simply carried the Rolls-Royce emblem. John Edward Scott-Montagu, who became the second Baron Montagu of Beaulieu in 1905, commissioned his friend, sculptor Charles Robinson Sykes, who worked in London under the nobleman's patronage, to sculpt a personal mascot for the bonnet of his 1909 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost, Sykes chose actress Eleanor Velasco Thornton as his model. Though married to Lady Cecil Victoria Constance Kerr since 1889, Baron Montagu fell in love with Eleanor (also known as Thorn) in 1902 when she worked for him on The Car Illustrated motoring magazine, which he published. She became his mistress and they had an illegitimate daughter, Joan Eleanor Thornton, whom she gave up for adoption. Their secret love was to remain hidden, limited to their circle of friends, for more than a decade.


Eleanor Velasco Thornton

Sykes originally crafted a figurine of her in fluttering robes, having placed one forefinger against her lips – to symbolize the secret of their love affair. The figurine was consequently named The Whisper and is on display at the National Motor Museum in Beaulieu along with other Spirit of Ecstasy figurines.

Wraith: Wraith is an old Scottish word meaning "ghost" or "spirit", continuing Rolls-Royce's (at the time) new nomenclature that they had adopted, using words relating to silent, gracious, elegant, rarely seen and highly sought after for these reasons. The Wraith name originated from a 40/50 h.p, (Silver Ghost) that was named "The Wraith" by its original owner.

Corniche: from the French corniche, a coastal road, especially along the face of a cliff, most notably the Grande Corniche along the French Riviera above the principality of Monaco.

Carmague: the Camargue derives its name from the coastal region in southern France at the mouth of the Rhone River.

Cullinan: named after the Cullinan Diamond, the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever discovered. The Cullinan is the first SUV to be launched by the Rolls-Royce marque, and is also the brand's first all-wheel drive vehicle.



Rootes Group
The Rootes Group or Rootes Motors Limited was a British automobile manufacturer based in the Midlands. In the decade beginning 1928 the Rootes brothers, William and Reginald, made prosperous by their very successful distribution and servicing business, were keen to enter manufacturing for closer control of the products they were selling. With the financial support of Prudential Assurance, the two brothers bought some well-known British motor manufacturers, including Hillman, Humber, Singer, Sunbeam, Triumph, Talbot, Commer and Karrier, controlling them through their parent, Rootes' 60-per-cent-owned subsidiary, Humber Limited. At its height in 1960, Rootes had manufacturing plants in the Midlands at Coventry and Birmingham, in southern England at Acton, Luton and Dunstable, and a brand-new plant in the west of Scotland at Linwood.

By 1960 annual production was around 200,000 vehicles. By mutual agreement, from mid-1964, Rootes Motors was taken over in stages by Chrysler Corporation, which bought control from the Rootes family in 1967. By the end of 1978 the last of the various elements of Chrysler UK had been sold to Peugeot and Renault.



Hillman: the Hillman Motor Car Company, founded in 1907 and based in Ryton-on-Dunsmore, near Coventry, England. Before 1907 the company had built bicycles. Newly under the control of the Rootes brothers, the Hillman company was acquired by Humber in 1928. Hillman was used as the small car marque of Humber Limited from 1931, but until 1937 Hillman did continue to sell large cars. The Rootes brothers reached a sixty per cent holding of Humber in 1932 which they retained until 1967, when Chrysler bought Rootes and bought out the other forty per cent of shareholders in Humber. The marque continued to be used under Chrysler until 1976.

Minx: The name, meaing "a boldly flirtatious girl or young woman". was first introduced in 1932. The 1956 Two Tone Minx was called the "Gay Look" and led to the advertising slogan "As Gay as a Mardi Gras". A smaller car, the Husky with van like body and using the old side-valve engine, was also new for 1954. The floor pan of this model was later to form the basis for the Sunbeam Alpine, Sunbeam also being part of the Rootes empire. A complete departure in 1963 was the Hillman Imp using a Coventry Climax all alloy, 875 cc rear engine and built in a brand new factory in Linwood, Scotland. The Super Minx of the 1960s was re-baged as the Singer Vogue, Humber Sceptre, Humber 90 and Humber Vogue.s

Hunter: A new car called the Hunter was introduced in 1966 with, in 1967, a smaller-engined standard version using the old Minx name. These are frequently given their factory code of "Arrow", but this name was never officially used in marketing.



Humber: Humber Limited was a British manufacturer of bicycles, motorcycles and motor vehicles incorporated and listed on the stock exchange in 1887. It took the name Humber & Co Limited because of the high reputation of the products of one of the constituent businesses that had belonged to Thomas Humber, a British engineer and cycle manufacturer who developed and patented a safety bicycle (1884) with a diamond-shaped frame and wheels of similar size. The motor division became much more important than the cycle division and the cycle trade marks were sold to Raleigh in 1932. The motorcycles were withdrawn from sale during the depression of the 1930s.

Snipe/Super Snipe: numerous Humber models were named after birds. There include the Snipe, Super Snipe and Hawk. Other model names - Pullman, Imperialand Sceptre, relating to sovereignty. The Humber Vogue name was shared with the Singer Vogue, a re-badged Hillman Super Minx, in the 1960s.



Singer: Singer Motors Limited was a British motor vehicle manufacturing business, originally a bicycle manufacturer founded as Singer & Co by George Singer, in 1874 in Coventry, England. From 1901 George Singer's Singer Motor Co made cars and commercial vehicles. William Rootes, a Singer apprentice at the time of its development and consummate car-salesman, contracted to buy 50, the entire first year's supply. It became a best-seller. Ultimately, Singer's business was acquired by his Rootes Group in 1956.

Gazelle: the Gazelle was a re-styled verson of the Hillmman Minx, positioned between the basic Hillman and the more sporting Sunbean version. The Humber Vogue name was shared with the Singer Vogue, a re-badged Hillman Super Minx, in the 1960s.



Sunbeam: the Sunbeam name had been registered by John Marston in 1888 for his bicycle manufacturing business. Sunbeam motor car manufacture began in 1901. In-house designer Coatalen's enthusiasm for motor racing accumulated expertise with engines. Sunbeam manufactured their own aero engines during the First World War and 647 aircraft to the designs of other manufacturers. Engines drew Sunbeam into Grand Prix racing and participation in the achievement of world land speed records.

In spite of its well-regarded cars and aero engines, by 1934 a long period of particularly slow sales had brought continuing losses. There was a forced sale, and Sunbeam was picked up by the Rootes brothers. Manufacture of Sunbeam's now old-fashioned cars did not resume under the new owners, but Sunbeam trolleybuses remained in production. Rootes had intended to sell luxury cars under the Sunbeam name, but almost four years after their purchase, in 1938, the two brothers instead chose to add the name Sunbeam to their Talbot branded range of Rootes designs calling them Sunbeam-Talbots. In 1954 they dropped the word Talbot, leaving just Sunbeam. Sunbeam continued to appear as a marque name on new cars until 1976. It was then used as a model name, firstly for the Chrysler Sunbeam from 1977 to 1979, and, following the takeover of Chrysler Europe by PSA Group, for the Talbot Sunbeam from 1979 through to its discontinuation in 1981.

Alpine: a 2-seater sports car, first introduced in 1953 as the first vehicle from Sunbeam-Talbot to bear the Sunbeam name alone since Rootes Group bought Clément-Talbot, and later the moribund Sunbeam from its receiver in 1935.

Tiger: a high performance V8 version of the British Rootes Group's Sunbeam Alpine roadster, designed in part by American car designer and racing driver Carroll Shelby and produced from 1964 until 1967. Rootes contracted the assembly work to Jensen at West Bromwich in England, and paid Shelby a royalty on every car produced. Shortly before its public unveiling at the New York Motor Show in April 1964 the car was renamed from Thunderbolt to Tiger, inspired by Sunbeam's 1925 land-speed-record holder.



Talbot: Talbot or Clément-Talbot Limited was a British automobile manufacturer founded in 1903. Clément-Talbot's products were named just Talbot from shortly after introduction, but the business remained Clément-Talbot Limited until 1938 when it was renamed Sunbeam-Talbot Limited. In the mid-1930s, Rootes bought the London Talbot factory and Antonio Lago bought the Paris Talbot factory, Lago producing vehicles under the marques Talbot and Talbot-Lago. Rootes renamed Clément-Talbot Limited Sunbeam-Talbot Limited in 1938, and stopped using the brand name Talbot in the mid-1950s. The Paris factory closed a few years later.

Commer: Commer was a British manufacturer of commercial vehicles from 1905 until 1979. Commer vehicles included car-derived vans, light vans, medium to heavy commercial trucks, military vehicles and buses. The company also designed and built some of its own diesel engines for its heavy commercial vehicles.

The Commer Light Pick-Up was a utility based on the Hillman Minx saloon and produced by Commer during the 1950s; a similar Hillman-badged model was also produced. Many examples of Commer BF were coach-built as ice cream vans. The Commer name was replaced by the Dodge name during the 1970s, following the takeover of Rootes by Chrysler Europe.



Saab
Saab takes its name from Saab AB, "Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget" (Swedish for "Swedish aeroplane corporation"), a Swedish aerospace and defence company, that was created in 1937 in Linköping.

Although we associate the brand's logo with Saab, it had been used by Scania since the beginning of the 20th century. It’s based on a mythological creature with the head of a bird with the body of a lion: the griffin (or Gripen, the same name used for one of the company’s fighter planes). The red-and-gold creature is the official coat of arms of the Count von Skane, which became the emblem for the Swedish province Skane where the companies were formed.

The creature, which symbolizes vigilance, wasn’t used on Saab vehicles until 1984, when designer Carl Frederik Reuterswärd revamped the emblem’s appearance. He stated, "The Symbol consists of a roundel inscribed with two circles, transposed to form a cylindrical band and create an impression of movement. Although each is shown in its own perspective, Saab and Scania are seen as a unit." The griffin emblem was used by Saab until 2010.



Subaru
The name Subaru is Japanese, meaning 'unite'. Subaru is also the Japanese name for the Pleiades star cluster M45, or the "Seven Sisters" (one of whom tradition says is invisible – hence only six stars in the Subaru logo), which in turn inspires the logo and alludes to the companies that merged to create Fuji Heavy Industries, the Subaru company's former name. Leone: Italian word for lion.

Sambar: the name Sambar is very similar to the top trim package for the Volkswagen Type 2 called the Samba introduced in 1951, which also used an air-cooled engine installed in the back, utilizing rear-wheel-drive, and was available in pickup configurations with fold-down beds. The name Sambar, recalling a Brazilian dance of African origin, reflected the vehicle's suitablilty to go on safari, and also made a connection to the company's 2 and 4-door model, the African-inspired name, Leone (meaning Lion).

Impreza: the name of Subaru's new 1992 compact was, initially, to be called the Loyale, displaying an official photograph of the four-door sedan, but was changed at the last minute. The name is a play on the word 'impress'.

WRX: Subaru claimed the name WRX stands for "World Rally eXperimental".

Legacy: a midsize car built by Japanese automobile manufacturer Subaru since 1989. The Legacy was introduced in 1989 to provide Subaru a vehicle to compete in the lucrative North American mid-size market against the Honda Accord, Toyota Camry, Mazda 626, and Nissan Stanza. The Legacy is sold as the Liberty in Australia out of deference to Legacy Australia, an organisation dedicated to caring for the families of military service veterans.

Leone: the word leone is Italian for lion. The Subaru Leone is a compact car produced by the Japanese car manufacturer Subaru from 1971 to 1994.It was released as a replacement to the Subaru 1000 and was the predecessor to the Subaru Impreza.



Tesla
The company's name is a tribute to Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla, best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

The most apparent and universally accepted explanation of the shpe of the Tesla logo is that it is the letter ‘T,’ signifying the name of the brand (like ‘H’ for Honda). It’s depicted as a capital letter ‘T’ with a triangular gap in the top and a curved shield across the top. However, because this obvious explanation has never officially been confirmed by the company, speculation has run rampant over the years as many fans have developed theories on what it alternately represents.

For instance, the name Tesla is Serbian for "adze," the name of a curved cutting tool. Perhaps that’s what is depicted on the Tesla badge. Or, it could be any of these popular hypotheses: A stylized Nikola Tesla coil; Part of the schematics symbol for "battery"; The rotor slot/post in an AC induction motor; A spike, considering how it cuts into the horizontal line underneath it; One pole in a rotational electric motor, with the split being the air gap between the rotor and the stator; A push self-defense knife; A cat’s nose–an amazing accurate observation once you notice the resemblance, and if so, a nod to the Jaguar brand.



Toyota

'Toyoda', from which the name Toyota is derived, means 'fertile rice paddies' in Japanese. In some Eastern cultures, an abundance of rice is a sign of prosperity.

In reality, it was the name of the company's founder. In 1936, Toyota entered the passenger car market with its Model AA and held a competition to establish a new logo emphasizing speed for its new product line. After receiving 27,000 entries, one was selected that additionally resulted in a change of its name to "Toyota" from the family name "Toyoda". The new name was believed to sound better, and its eight-stroke count in the Japanese language was associated with wealth and good fortune. The original logo is no longer found on its vehicles but remains the corporate emblem used in Japan.

The currently elliptical logo used by Toyota today took five years to develop and was revealed in October 1989 to commemorate Toyota’s 50th anniversary. The company wanted to create a new logo that established a strong identity for Toyota as it grew in markets outside of Japan. The two inner, perpendicular ellipses symbolize the merging of the hearts of customers and the company (also said to be the product). That mutual relationship is surrounded by the greater oval of technological progress and the whole market which embraces Toyota. Each oval has a different stroke thickness to reflect brush strokes in Japan’s calligraphy. Another claim is that the three ovals represent the three cultural aspects of the company: freedom, team spirit, and progress.



Even the negative space in the logo represents something: boundless opportunities and infinite values in the quality/enjoyment of the company’s products. The most obvious shape that can be seen in the badge is the letter "T" of the word "Toyota" but every letter is actually intentionally hidden in there.

Corona: The word "corona" is Latin for "crown", a reference to an earlier vehicle Toyota offered called the Toyota Crown. In many countries, the Corona was one of Toyota's first international exports, and was shortly joined by the smaller Toyota Corolla. The Corona was manufactured between 1957 and 2001.

Corolla: The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans, with "corolla" Latin for "small crown".

Crown: The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans, with "corolla" Latin for "small crown". The Corolla was introduced in 1966.

Crown: The first Toyota named Crown was released in Japan since 1955. At that time it was determined that future models would have names based on variation of 'Crown'.

Camry: derived from the Japanese phrase kanmuri, meaning "little crown".

Aurion: a derviative of an ancient Greek word meaning "tomorrow," "soon," or "the dawning of a new day.". The Aurion is a mid-size car produced by Toyota in Australia and parts of Asia from 2006 to 2017. In the two generations it was produced, the Aurion was derived from the equivalent Toyota Camry.

Scepter: took its name from the sceptre, an accessory to a crown.

Avalon: the Crown's North American counterpart, while not named after a crown, is named after the mythical island from the legends of King Arthur. Toyota marketed the Avalon as a replacement for the Cressida, a model discontinued for the American market in 1992.

Cressida: the "Cressida" name derives from the Trojan character.

Celica: the Celica name derives from the Latin word coelica meaning "heavenly" or "celestial". The Toyota Celica was produced by Toyota from 1970 to 2006.

Supra: the styling of the Supra was derived from the Toyota Celica, but it was both longer and wider. The name, first used as the Celica Supra (Supura in Japan, meaning 'superior'), indicated it was the deluxe or 'superior' model to the standard Celica. In 1986, Toyota stopped using the prefix Celica and began calling the car Supra.

Starlet: the name has similar origins to Corolla, as it means small star burning brightly. The Toyota Starlet was manufactured by Toyota from 1973 to 1999, replacing the Publica, but retaining the Publica's "P" code and generation numbering.

Mark II: The various meanings of "Mark" are the same as in English (target, grade, fame). "Corona Mark II" can be taken to mean that the car is both "the second-generation model" and "an upgraded version" of the Corona.

Soarer: used with its meaning of a high-performance glider.

Tercel: the name "Tercel" derives from the Latin word for "one third" as the Tercel was slightly smaller (one-third) than the Corolla. In much the way "tiercel" refers to a male falcon, which is one-third smaller than its female counterpart. The Toyota Tercel was manufactured by Toyota from 1978 to 1999 across five generations, in five body configurations sized between the Corolla and the Starlet. The Tercel was the first front-wheel-drive vehicle produced by Toyota.

Prius: Prius is a Latin word meaning "first", "original", "superior" or "to go before", a reference to it being Toyota's first hybrid powered motor vehicle, a pioneer in Toyota's move into electrically power vehicles. The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric automobile developed and manufactured by Toyota since 1997.

Avensis: derived from the French term avancer, meaning "to advance." Avensis also means "to carry away" in Latin.

Tarago: named after the Australian town of Tarago, New South Wales. The Toyota Tarago is the marketing name for several Toyota people mover vans sold in the Australian market from 1983 to 2019. From February 1983 to 1990, the Tarago was a rebadged version of the Toyota TownAce/MasterAce Surf sold in Japan. From September 1990 to late 2019, the Tarago was based on the Toyota Previa model. The name "Previa" is derived from the Spanish and Italian for "preview," as Toyota saw the first Previa as a vehicle that would preview technologies used in future minivans. The American derivate, the Toyota Sienna, is named for the Italian city of Siena, in the region of Tuscany.

Kluger: a German surname first recorded around the 14th century and originated from a pre 7th century word klouc meaning noble or refined.

Prado: Spanish, Galician, Portuguese, and Jewish (Sephardic) habitational name from prado 'meadow' (from Latin pratum).

Rav: Recreational Activity Vehicle. Rav is also the Hebrew generic term for a teacher or a personal spiritual guide, though that meaning never influenced Toyota in the selection of the name. RAV4 stands for "Recreational Activity Vehicle: 4-wheel drive", because the aforementioned equipment is an option in some countries. The L of RAV 4L stands for Liberty.

4Runner: Combines 4-wheel drive and off-road runner.

Echo: Reflects wide-open spaces and a youthful voice.

FJ Cruiser: the Cruiser name comes from the FJ 40-series Land Cruiser first introduced in 1961

Highlander: Named after an inhabitant of the Scottish Highlands; conveys power, energy, and ruggedness.

Matrix:   A rectangular arrangement of rows and columns -- fitting the cross-functional nature, the versatility, and the interior functionality of the vehicle

MR2: Mid-engine, Rear-wheel drive, 2 seater

Supra: Derived from the Latin prefix meaning "to surpass" or "go beyond"

Yaris: stems from a goddess in Greek mythology, named Charis, who was a symbol of beauty and elegance. We used the German expression of agreement, "ya", because we think this new name best symbolizes the car's broad appeal in styling and is representative of Toyota's next generation of global cars

Hilux: a combination of "high" and "luxury". The Hilux started production in March 1968, under the name Toyota Store. The Hilux was engineered and assembled by Hino Motors to replace the earlier vehicle as a more up-market model, alongside the larger and older Toyota Stout utility.

HiAce: the name combines "high" and "ace," signifying that this vehicle surpasses its predecessor, the Toyo Ace.

Townace: A combination of "town" and "ace." Also given the Liteace name in some markets.

Corsa: "Corsa" is the Italian word for "race" or "run"

Coaster: A "coaster" is a ship that is used to carry cargo along the coast from port to port.

Dyna: short for "dynamic.



Standard-Triumph
The Triumph Motor Company had its origins in 1885 when Siegfried Bettmann of Nuremberg formed S. Bettmann & Co. and started importing bicycles from Europe and selling them under his own trade name in London. The trade name became "Triumph" the following year, and in 1887 Bettmann was joined by a partner, Moritz Schulte, also from Germany. In 1889, the businessmen started producing their own bicycles in Coventry, England. In 1930 the company's name was changed to Triumph Motor Company.

The marque's first logo was a simple wreath encircling the word "Triumph". In 1944 Standard bought the company and new Triumph roadsters and saloons were created. Then the company decided to rebrand the two marques: Standard made the saloons and Triumph the roadsters and sports cars. A new Triumph logo was developed, in the sylised shape of a car radiator. The model name was incorporated into the badge on their sports car models.



Dolomite: a mountainous area in Northern Italy.

Herald: The choice of the Herald name suggests that the car was originally intended to be marketed as a Standard, as it fits the model-naming scheme of the time (Ensign, Pennant and Standard itself). But by 1959 it was felt that the Triumph name had more brand equity, and the Standard name was phased out in Britain after 1963. The name was chosen as the car was the first in a series of new, more modern cars.

Spitfire: manufactured between 1962 and 1980 and based on the chassis of the Triumph Herald saloon, it was named to honour the World War II fighter plane of the same name.

Vitesse: a French word meaning to travel at speed. The Vitesse name was first used by Austin on their 1914–16 Austin 20 (hp) and 30 (hp) Vitesse models, this was followed in 1922 by G. N.(Godfrey & Nash) on their GN Vitesse Cyclecar, and then by Triumph on a car made between 1935 and 1938. After the last Triumph Vitesse was made in July 1971, the name remained unused until October 1982, when Rover used it on their SD1 until 1986, and one final time on their Rover 800, 820 and 827 models from October 1988 to 1991, at which time that car was rebodied as the R17 version, which was produced until 1998 as the Rover Vitesse Sport.

Standard
The Standard Motor Company Limited was a motor vehicle manufacturer, founded in Coventry, England, in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. It purchased Triumph in 1945 and in 1959 officially changed its name to Standard-Triumph International and began to put the Triumph brand name on all its products.

For many years, it manufactured Ferguson TE20 tractors powered by its Vanguard engine. All Standard's tractor assets were sold to Massey Ferguson in 1959. In September 1959, Standard Motor Company was renamed Standard-Triumph International Limited. A new subsidiary took the name The Standard Motor Company Limited and took over the manufacture of the group's products. The Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, and in India in 1988.



Varguard: A one-model policy for the Standard marque (alongside a range of new Triumphs) was adopted in 1948 with the introduction of the 2-litre Standard Vanguard, which was styled on American lines by Walter Belgrove, and replaced all the carry-over pre-war models. This aptly named model was the first true post-war design from any major British manufacturer. It was also the first model to carry the new Standard badge, which was a heavily stylised representation of the wings of a griffin, but based on the Triumph badge. The fastback Vanguard Phase 1 was replaced in 1953 by the notch-back Phase 2 and in 1955 by the all-new Phase 3, which resulted in variants such as the Sportsman, Ensign, Vanguard Vignale and Vanguard Six.



Vauxhall

The manufacturer was originally named Vauxhall Iron Works before settling on its current name. Vauxhall designed its original logo when it was founded in 1857; as a nod to its local heritage, Vauxhall chose the image of a griffin driving a "V" flag into the ground. After its founder left the company and it began producing cars, the name and logo were retained to pay homage to its roots. The griffin, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head/wings of an eagle, reflects the coat of arms of Sir Falkes de Breauté, a mercenary soldier who was given the Manor of Luton by King John in the thirteenth century. His mansion, Fulk’s Hall, became known eventually as Vauxhall. The company's major manufacturing facilities are in Luton. '

Victor: to conquor. The Vauxhall Victor, codenamed the F Series, was produced by Vauxhall from 1957 to 1976. Following then current American styling trends, the windscreen pillars of the first series sloped backwards. In fact, the body style was derived directly from the classic 55 Chevrolet Bel Air, though this was not obvious unless the two cars were viewed side by side.

Velox: Latin word for speed.

Viva: French word meaning 'long live'. The Viva was developed jointly with the Opel Kadett A. The third generation HC series was the last solely Vauxhall designed passenger car when it ceased production in 1979. The Holden Torana was based on the Vauxhall Viva.

Wyvern: from the mythical beast the wyvern, and may be due to a misidentification of the heraldic griffin on the Vauxhall badge.

Cresta: the summit or highest part, as in the crest of a bird. The Vauxhall Cresta, produced from 1954 to 1972, was an upmarket version of the Vauxhall Velox. It was so named as, at the time of its release, it was the make's top of the range model. The Viscount (1966–1972) was an upmarket Cresta PC.



Volkswagen
The need for a people's car (Volkswagen in German, and in the English-speaking world in the early 20th century as "folks' wagon"), its concept and its functional objectives were formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network (Reichsautobahn). Lead engineer Ferdinand Porsche and his team took until 1938 to finalise the design. The result was the first Volkswagen, and one of the first rear-engined cars since the Brass Era. With 21,529,464 produced, the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured car of a single platform ever made.

Type 1: The Volkswagen Beetle—officially the Volkswagen Type 1, known informally in German the Käfer (meaning "beetle") because of its shape, and known by many other nicknames in other languages. The Type 1 was manufactured from 1938 until 2003.

Type 2: The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, is a forward control light commercial vehicle introduced in 1950 as Volkswagen's second vehicle model. Following – and initially deriving from – Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1 (Beetle), it was given the factory designation Type 2. It was one of the forerunners of the modern cargo and passenger van.

Type 3: The Type 3 was the third model style introduced by Volkswagen, it being a passenger car which retained several of the Beetle's key engineering principles, but diversified Volkswagen's product range with an alterative family car. It was available in three body styles: two-door Notchback, Fastback and Variant (station wagon).

Type 14: a sports car marketed in 2+2 coupe (1955–1974) and 2+2 convertible (1957–1974) body styles by Volkswagen. Internally designated the Type 14, the Karmann Ghia combined the chassis and mechanicals of the Type 1 (Beetle) with styling by Italy's Carrozzeria Ghia and hand-built bodywork by German coachbuilding house Karmann. More than 445,000 Karmann Ghias were produced in Germany over the car's production life, not including the Type 34 variant.

Type 34: From 1962-1969, Volkswagen marketed the Type 34, based on the Type 3 platform, featuring angular bodywork and mechanicals from said platform. Due to model confusion with the Type 14 1500 introduced in 1967, the Type 34 was known variously as the "Der Grosse Karmann" ("the big Karmann") in Germany, "Razor Edge Ghia" in the United Kingdom, "European Ghia" in the United States and the "Type 3 Ghia among enthusiasts. Until it was replaced by the VW-Porsche 914, it was the most expensive and luxurious passenger car manufactured by Volkswagen in the 1960s.

In the mid-1970s, Volkswagen made a decision to call its newly developing models after winds. As these cars were the first Volkswagen to not be water-cooled, thev name are thought to be a tip of the hat to the air-cooled engines that poweredland early Volkswagens.

Golf: actually the German word for "gulf", as in "the Gulf stream." In fact, naming cars after prominent winds is a theme used by Volkswagen. "Passat" is "Jetta" is

Passat: German word for "trade wind."

Polo: a wind which blows across the polar ice cap. The first Polo was effectively a rebadged version of the Audi 50 hatchback launched in August 1974.

Scirocco: named after Sirocco, a Mediterranean wind.

Bora: named after a wind, Bora being the wind of Trieste. The name was also used by Maserati for one of its sports cars in the 1970s.

Touareg: literally means "free folk" and is the name of a nomadic tribe from the Sahara,'" they wrote in a press release, explaining their decision to borrow the name of the nomadic North African ethnic group. According to Volkswagen, they the Touareg embody the ideal of man’s ability to triumph over the obstacles of a harsh land. The Touareg, launched in 2003, was Volkswagen's first ever SUV. It is built at Volkswagen's Bratislava Plant. Tuareg rebels were formerly brought to Libya to be mercenaries for Muammar al-Qaddafi’s regime. The ethnic group has been involved off-and-on in a low-level insurgency against the government of Mali and Niger since the 1960s.

Tiguan: The name is a portmanteau of the German words Tiger ("tiger") and Leguan ("iguana") and won a naming contest by German car magazine publisher Auto Bild — from a field of names that also included Namib, Rockton, Liger, Samun and Nanuk. A compact crossover vehicle, the Tiguan debuted as a concept vehicle at the November 2006 LA Auto Show and in production form at the 2007 International Motor Show Germany.

Fox: Volkswagen acquired the rights to the name in 1969, by purchasing NSU. The original NSU Fox was a motorbike first seen in 1949, and Volkswagen had subsequently used the "Fox" name in Mexico and South America for locally built Volkswagen Polos. The Audi 80, produced in the 1970s, also used the name on 4-door sedan versions of its Series I Passat (the fastback variant was marketed as the Volkswagen Passat) which was sold in Australia and the United States.



Volvo
The Volvo name was a joint decision between SKF management and the company’s founders. They wanted an easy-to-pronounce name that could be spoken and written around the world with minimal chances of misspelling. The root word "Volvere" is Latin for "to roll." When conjugated in first person, the verb becomes "volvo," meaning "I roll." This reflected both a personal connection and suggestion of automobile movement.

Volvo adorns its signature diagonal bar across its vehicles’ radiator grilles with the same badge: a silver circle with an arrow pointing out diagonally (northeast), an icon typically used to identify male gender. The male gender icon originated in ancient Rome, used as the astrological symbol for Mars (probably his sword and shield). However Volvo’s logo is actually the ancient chemical symbol for iron. The company's founders wanted a strong image for their vehicles, and were inspired by their time spent working for a Swedish steel company, and chose the logo as it reflected strength.

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